Minggu, 15 Juni 2008

Definisi pemuliaan tanaman

1. Pemuliaan tanaman adalah rangkaian kegiatan penelitian dan pengujian atau kegiatan penemuan dan pengembangan suatu varietas, sesuai dengan metode baku untuk menghasilkan varietas baru dan mempertahankan kemurnian benih varietas yang dihasilkan. (Undang-undang Republik Indonesia nomor 29 tahun 2000 tentang perlindungan varietas tanaman)
2. Pemuliaan tanaman adalah suatu teknologi dan seni untuk memanipuasi gen dan kromosom atau kemampuan genetik tanaman sehingga sifat-sifat tanaman tersebut menjadi mulia dan lebih berguna sesuai dengan keperluan manusia yang selalu meningkat (Ahmad Baehaki dalam Nani Hermiati 2000. Diktat Kuliah Pengantar Pemuliaan Tanaman.Fakultas Pertanian UNPAD Bandung)
3. Plant breeding is the science, art, and business of improving plants for human benefit. (Bernardo, R. 2002. Breeding for quantitative traits. Stemma Press,Minneapolis, MN)
4. Pemuliaan tanaman adalah ilmu tentang perubahan susunan genetic sehingga memperoleh tanaman yang menguntungkan manusia (Poespodarsono Sumardjo. 1988. Dasar-dasar ilmu oemuliaan tanaman.PAU IPB-Lembaga sumberdaya informasi IPB).
5. Plant breeding implies the conscious human effort aimed at improving old and developing new varieties of crops in order to satisfy the demand for human and animal feed. Borojevic Slavsko. 1990. Development of crop science: Principles and method of plant breeding. Elsevier. New York)
6. Plant breeding is use of techniques involving crossing plants to produce varieties with particular characteristics (traits), which are carried in the genes of the plants and passed on to future plant generations. Agricultural Biotechnology glossary, USDA <http://www.usda.gov.us/ERS/brefing room.html >4/4/2008
7. Plant breeding is an applied, multidisciplinary science. It is the application of genetic principles and practices associated with the development of cultivars more suited to the needs of humans than the ability to survive in the wild; it uses knowledge from agronomy, botany, genetics, cytogenetic, molecular genetics, physiology, pathology, entomology, biochemistry, and statistics (Schlegel, R.H.J. 2003. Dictionary of plant breeding. Food Products Press/The Haworth Reference Press, New York.)
8. The ultimate outcome of plant breeding is mainly improved cultivars. Therefore, plant breeding is primarily an organismal science even though it is eminently suited to translate information at the molecular level (DNA sequences, protein products) into economically important phenotypes. (Gepts Paul and Jim Hancock. 2006. The future of plant breeding. Crop Sci. 46:1630–1634)
9. The traditional definition of a plant breeding includes science which develop new cultivars and improved germplasm; however, many feel this definition should be expanded to include science which contribute to crop improvement through breeding research (Ransom, C., C. Drake, K. Ando, and J. Olmstead. 2006. Report of breakout group 1: What kind of training do plant breeders need, and how can we most effectively provide that training? HortScience 41:53–54)
10. A broad definition of plant breeding usually refers to the purposeful manipulation of genetic material through hybridization, mutation, or genetic engineering to produce new genotypes followed by selection of outstanding individuals to establish cultivars which are populations of related plants with economic value (Bliss A.Fredrick . 2007. Education and Preparation of Plant Breeders for Careers in Global Crop Improvement .International plant breeding symposium. Crop science society of America. Madison WI USA, Desember 2007.pp250-261)
11. Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of certain species of plants in order to create desired varieties to achieve specific purposes. The manipulation may be done in several ways. It can either be by means of controlled pollination or the direct manipulation of the plant’s genes as in genetic engineering. This usually progresses into artificial selection new strains that will eventually lead to domestication. Plant breeding is a practice in making plants develop better strains for as early as thousands of years ago. It started with plant domestication practices that allowed early humans to produce and grow plants with fewer undesirable traits from wild strains. Many of the crops today were a result of plant domestication during the ancient times. 4/4/2008.
12. Plant breeding is technical components, for example, applied science, multidisciplinary approaches based on genetic principles, improved germplasm, new cultivars suited to human needs and transfer of few to many genes controlling simple to complex traits resulting in economically important phenotypes. (Lee, E.A., and J.W. Dudley. 2006. Plant breeding education. p. 120–126. In K.R. Lamkey and A.R. Hallauer (eds.) Plant Breeding: The Arnel R. Hallauer Int. Symp., Mexico City. 17–23 Aug. 2003.Blackwell Publ. Ltd., Oxford, U.K)

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